For those of you who missed this year’s ORFC, here’s a short video of the New Generations, New Ideas sessions
SkillShare is one of the ways in which the Youth Food Movement connects young people with their food. Butter-making is just one of the skills that they share, but will be especially relevant at the Oxford Real Farming Conference in a year when dairy farmers have often received less than the cost of production for raw milk. Cream in particular is not receiving the premium that it used and so looking for ways to add value to this product is particularly important.
The revival of “forgotten skills” that has occurred as a result of people wanting to lead more sustainable lives has already scored successes in baking, preserving and foraging but I would be willing to bet that even people already actively practising these skills don’t make their own butter. Yet until the 19th century almost every household did.
One of the last people to have witnessed at first hand these dying skills in rural England was Dorothy Hartley, whose book Food in England was published in 1954. Of butter making she wrote…
“In all England I hardly knew a craft that varies more than making butter…If I tried to tell you all the different ways butter was made in England, there would be room for nothing else in this book.”
She does however find space to refer to the preference for Sweet Cream butter that is characteristic of Britain (and America) whilst continental Europe prefers butter made with cultured cream.
When butter was made at home it was usually made in small quantities with the cream from that day’s milking. If however it was necessary to store the cream for two or three days before making butter it would naturally have begun to sour. Likewise the residue from milk or cream that had first been used for another purpose, such as cheese, would have been heated and had the addition of cultures to separate the curds from the whey. Butter comes only from the butterfat present in cream, leaving a residue of buttermilk, and whilst there will be only a small percentage of butterfat in the whey left over from making cheese, what is present can still be separated out to make butter. In modern commercial butter making cultures are usually added and it is now very rare, even in Britain, to taste butter that has been made from unpasteurised sweet-cream. Pasteurisation has extended the keeping qualities of butter, which can now be kept for some months, whereas the refrigerated shelf-life of unpasteurised butter is roughly 10 days, less if it is not salted.
Are people likely to return to making butter at home? Two of double cream will make about one pound of butter and a pint of buttermilk. It does not make sense financially if you are paying retail prices for cream. However, electric mixers take the hard work out of churning. In fact it is by accidentally over-beating cream with an electric mixer that you are most likely to encounter butter in a domestic kitchen. Sadly most people fail to recognise that they have, unwittingly, created another product and simply throw away the result. So the SkillShare will at least show you how to rinse out the buttermilk and avoid this waste. There are other signs of a growing interest in how butter is made. Stockholm’s Restaurant Frantzen-Lindeberg, considered one of the world’s 50 best, sets its tables with bread already proving and whilst that is taken away to bake diners make their own butter. It is not just a gimmick, but an effort to reconnect diners with how their food is made and to give them the opportunity to taste what freshly made butter tastes like. Whether the result will be a resurgence in home butter-making or better production by commercial producers I’m not yet sure, but either way it is a skill worth understanding and Oxford is a lot closer than Stockholm, so do pop in and give it a try.
Suzanne Wynn December 2012
More About Skillshare:
‘YFM UK developed the Skillshare to bring the idea of an apprenticeship or a stage to larger numbers of people. Most youngsters will never be able to go and learn from an artisan at their farm or dairy so the butter-making Skillshare brings the skill to them. The simplicity of butter making means that a familiar everyday food stuff is raised to the level of alchemy for youthful eyes, when a child sees the liquid turning to a solid, there is a definite light bulb moment and this new perspective has positive repercussion for all their interactions with food.’
It always amazes me how seldom the taste of a food is mentioned by it’s producer. The health benefits – yes, the environmental impact and animal welfare all seem to be higher up the agenda, at least in the UK, for this reticence to talk about taste seems to be a peculiarly British thing. In France and Italy children are taught about taste at school but here we seem to lack the vocabulary to discuss what we are eating beyond “yuck” or “yummy”.
The Pasture Fed Livestock Association was launched at this conference last year and, despite an excellent opportunity to taste the beef at a dinner that night, the accompanying talk and literature made little mention of the taste benefits of feeding cattle on grass. This is a crucial point, because as grain-feeding gains momentum I have already seen restaurant menus proudly boasting that they are serving Grain-Fed beef. The uninformed consumer assumes that this must, in some way, be superior and so it insidiously gains credence in our culture. I have often wondered how it came to be that the Argentineans, once producers of some of the best beef in the world, could so quickly be converted from pasture (albeit predominantly pampas prairie) to grain fed in such a short space of time. Money of course had much to do with it, although I think that it is still accepted that the best beef in Argentina is pasture-fed.
Immediately following the conference I wrote an article for the Pasture-Fed Livestock Association that I hope helped to plug the taste gap. I was delighted to see that their recent AGM included discussions about the effect of hanging on flavour and also how to assess the hanging time required relative to fat cover.
When Colin and Ruth invited me to join their Campaign for Real Farming it was precisely to fulfil the “Food Culture” aspect that Colin had identified was so important to the success of the campaign. Colin realised that farmers needed cooks who cared about the quality of ingredients if they were to be prepared to pay the true cost of production. He also recognised that this was the foundation from which organisations such as the Italian-based Slow Food movement had grown.
So at our the fourth Oxford Real Farming Conference on 3 & 4th January 2013 I will be talking to the new generation of farmers about how to ensure the taste aspect of whatever they produce is most effectively conveyed at the point of sale. Please join us. Book your tickets via http://www.oxfordrealfarmingconference.org
Follow Suzanne on Twitter @RealFoodSuzie
Wild Law UK advocates Earth-centred governance and the recognition of the rights of nature.
Olaseinde Arigbede sent us this photo
This page is a directory of people around the country doing all sorts of interesting things. Some of them are contributors to this site. Keep an eye on this page as it develops, and if you would like to be featured here please get in touch.
Tim Waygood at Church Farm
Bob Orskov and the Orskov Foundation
Martin Wolfe at Wakelyns Farm
Nick Snelgar of Future Farms
Matt Dale – North Aston Dairy
Jocelyn Jones and World Family
For all those engaged in food sovereignty and local food issues, this calendar provides you with a directory of events across the UK. If you agree with the 6 Principles of Food Sovereignty, you can register by contacting us for an invitation code, then going here to add your own events, or just use this calendar as a guide to find out what’s happening near you.
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If you haven’t yet managed to visit Church Farm in Ardley, Herts, then you’ve missed a real treat! This newsletter gives information on all the events planned at the farm in the near future, together with where you can buy their produce if you can’t get to their farm shop and cafe (they have distribution points in London and Herts).
For those who worry that prices at farmers’ markets and farm shops are higher than Tescos and their ilk, Tim includes tables comparing Church Farm prices for lamb, beef, pork with all the major supermarkets. They’re mostly either less or about the same!